It is noteworthy that the recent spate of writings in the field of “political development” has shown a pronounced tendency to omit consideration of Latin America. Post navigation. The US occupied Nicaragua in 1912, going on to acquire rights to build a supposed ‘Nicaragua Canal’ from the US-backed Chamorro family. Heraldo Munoz. Latin America has been a breeding ground for many of the security assistance programs that are now active worldwide, particularly counter-drug programs. 122–153Google Scholar. Subscribe to our Youtube channel for all latest in-depth, on the ground reporting from around the world. Chapter V. 7 Edwin Lieuwen discusses the relation between the depression and military intervention in “Militarism and Politics in Latin America,” in Johnson, John J. 10 of the Most Lethal CIA Interventions in Latin America 0 + Since July 26, 1947, the CIA has played a role in hundreds of assassinations, military coups, and rebellions around the globe, from Argentina to Zaire. Fill in your details below or click an … Why is America Addicted to Foreign Interventions? Total loading time: 0.548 ★ 56 us military interventions in latin america: Add an external link to your content for free. It is their defiance of U.S. hegemony that has made folk heroes out of Chávez and Castro. As a result, the US demanded full control of the canal and a 9.7 km zone around it. 27 To be considered “dictatorial,” a government: (1) Had to be not an avowedly provisional regime holding office for 36 months or less; (2) Had to come to power, or remain in power after the conclusion of the constitutionally prescribed term of office, by means other than a free and competitive election; or rule in clear disregard of constitutionally guranteed liberties. Not long after, the Sandinista revolution overthrew the US-backed Somoza dictatorship and faced off against the US-sponsored Contra guerrilla rebels. 22 See Generals vs. Presidents, pp. "metrics": true, 24 In one variant of this situation, the provisional president may save his own personal position by switching sides at the last minute and adopting the program of the “hard liners,” if the forces they can marshal seem decisive. The Military Assistance Program (MAP) constitutes the most important U,S. This site uses cookies. During an internal power struggle, while 800 US medical students were on the island, Reagan used the unrest as justification for ordering an invasion. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. Ege & Makhijani. It was only when Noriega outlived his usefulness that he would be overthrown by the US in 1990, and arrested for corruption, racketeering and drug smuggling. The 1823 Monroe Doctrine set the stage for U.S. intervention throughout Latin America. 6 A series of such pairs of mutually contradictory hypotheses drawn from the literature is neatly formulated by Lyle N. McAlister in his contribution to Johnson, John J. ), Continuity and Change in Latin America (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1964), pp. The Salvadoran military dictator refuses, then murders thousands of peasants. The Making of Modern Colombia. 90 – 92. Against a backdrop of US interventions, forced regime change and military coups in Latin America, the CIA director’s words reflect an established approach for the United States in dealing with its southern neighbours, often away from the public eye and motivated by big business, economic interest and ideology. ★ 56 us military interventions in latin america: Add an external link to your content for free. This thesis is still perfectly valid and allows us to start evaluating military interventions of the imperialist centers in Latin America. Since 1823, the so-called Monroe Doctrine served as the basis for US interventions. When it comes to American intervention in Latin America, history tells us all options are always on the table. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Fast and free shipping free … * Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 8th December 2020. Its linchpin is the doctrine of National Security, by which the chief threat to a nation is internal subversion; this will be the guiding principle behind dictatorships in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Central America… The history of military interventions in Latin America is the sharpest expression of American interest in the region, illustrating the empire’s need to maintain the economic, political and security chains that bind these two regions together. Alan Riding. U.S. $15.19 . Introduction. Adam Bensaid is a deputy producer at TRT World. In exchange for Cuba’s independence, the US forced the newly-independent nation to include the Platt Amendment in its new constitution. The United States engaged in forty-six military interventions from 1948–1991, from 1992–2017 that number increased fourfold to 188. Encyclopedia of U.S. Military Interventions in Latin America [2 volumes] The United States has intervened hundreds of times in the affairs of Latin American countries—from spying and proxy wars to major military invasions. The Batista government opened Havana to US investment and tax refuge, exploitative tourism, organised crime syndicates and drugs, and announced that it would match, dollar for dollar, any investment over $1 million USD. However, unless Latin America gains considerable economic, political, and military might, circumstances are unlikely to change very much in … Items in bold are wars most often considered to be major conflicts by historians and the general public. Venezuelan opposition leader Guaido released after brief arrest, Pipe bomb package addressed to CNN in Atlanta intercepted, Pence aide testifies in Trump impeachment inquiry, Bolton a no-show, Thousands take to streets in the US to rally against gun-violence, Trump blames Democrats for migrant 'caravan' without providing any proof. Whether through direct military action or CIA mischief, the United States has variously propped up brought down, or attempted to bring down, regimes in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Argentina, Haiti, Costa Rica, El Salvador, … 13 It is the conclusion of Lieuwen's, insightful Generals Vs. Presidents (New York: Praeger, 1964), pp. 56 U.S. Military Interventions in Latin America Reply. "metricsAbstractViews": false, The Latin Americanists, for their part, have largely stressed those key features of the area's politics which have long remained constant—executive predominance, military intervention, and the influence of the peculiarities of Hispanic culture. The CIA would go on to orchestrate a coup against the sitting president, building, arming and training an opposition force to overthrow him. In 2017, then CIA director Mike Pompeo commented that he was “hopeful that there can be a transition in Venezuela and we the CIA is doing its best to understand the dynamic there”. According to O’ Donnell this new type of bureaucratic authoritarian military regime left many political scientists puzzled because of its quick ability to take over these countries. Post navigation. The Trump administration’s threat of military intervention in Venezuela is only the latest chapter in Washington’s long history of coups in Latin America dating back to 1898. 1 Pye, Lucian W. So Much for Anarcho-Syndicalism: Union Membership at an All-Time Low. U.S. Army School of the Americas opens in Panama as a hemisphere-wide military academy. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. IN DEPTH: CIA in Ecuador. The US supported Pinochet’s military dictatorship for decades. 8 It should not be thought that economic conditions always worsen as a result of a coup. 5 This article forms part of a larger work currently in progress. Like Africa, India, and the Middle East, Latin America has a long history of meddling by foreign powers, all of them European and North American. 18 The concept of “weight” is discussed below. ), Communications and Political Development (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963)Google Scholar; and La Palombara, Joseph (ed. At the same time, it is clear that the social changes usually collectively termed “modernization”—urbanization, technological borrowing, and the development of mass communications grids—together with their political correlate, the expansion of the political community to include hitherto excluded social elements, are proceeding in Latin America too. "comments": true, $22.99 . Involvement of the United States in regime change in Latin America most commonly involved US-backed coups d'état aimed at replacing left-wing leaders with right-wing, usually military and authoritarian regimes. The Military Assistance Program (MAP) constitutes the most important U,S. Lehoucq, Fabrice ISBN 0-02-588210-4. (ed. This would later be publicised as the Iran-Contra affair. program aimed at military operations in Latin America. Polga-Hecimovich, John Interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean presents a concise account of the full sweep of U.S. military invasions and interventions in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean from 1800 up to the present day. 2 Janowitz, Morris, The Military in the Political Development of New Nations (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964)Google Scholar. The main driver of this policy was the Great Depression, which saw many Americans to lose interest in spending on military adventurism, rather than a true change of heart. Brazil’s return to democracy would see several right-wing hardliner governments come to power, resulting in deep inequality and extreme poverty for the country that continues to affect it to the present day. The Platt Amendment prevented Cuba from leasing land to any country but the US, allowed for US intervention in Cuban affairs, and forbade it from negotiating any treaties with anyone but the US. Although several authors have assumed viewpoints of this type, they do not appear substantiated by the evidence cited above. Any efforts by European nations to colonise territories or interfere with states in the Americas were thus considered an act of aggression. Poole, Keith T. ), Political Systems of Latin America (Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1964), pp. 101–107Google Scholar, that the last factor mentioned has been the crucial one in the recent coups. Will Biden’s cabinet be as diverse as he pledged? 10 Cases of American Intervention in Latin America. Language: English: Subject: International relations. (eds. He also censored the press, banned unions, permitted torture and repression, and according to one government report, killed nearly 28,000 people during his rule. Unfinished Revolution. 20 “Man in the News,” New York Times, 04 6, 1964Google Scholar. Intervention Unbound by Alex de Waal. NY Court to Decide . BA Military Interventions in Latin America During the 1960s and 1970s in Latin America, countries like Argentina, Brazil, and Chile all experienced some sort of authoritarian regime. Lap Dances a Tax-Exempt Art? Following the coup, Pinochet’s regime would become one of the most oppressive and brutal military regimes of the 20th Century. ed. (ed. "relatedCommentaries": true, The military history of the United States spans a period of over two centuries. Latin Americans resent being bullied by foreign powers. Following extensive lobbying, President Eisenhower chose to make use of the CIA to remove President Arbenz, in what came to be known as operation PBSUCCESS. 28 The idea of approaching the problem in this fashion was suggested to the author by Schneider's, Ronald article “The U. S. in Latin America” in Current History for 01, 1965Google Scholar. In addition to documented facts and figures, the alphabetically organized entries in Encyclopedia of U.S. Military Interventions in Latin America present fascinating anecdotes on the subject, including why the United States once invaded Panama over a slice of watermelon, how an intervention in Nicaragua landed our country on trial for war crimes, and how the popularity of baseball in Latin America is a direct result of American … The context of the call for military intervention in Africa. The 19th century saw the United States transition from an isolationist, post-colonial regional power to a Trans-Atlantic and Trans-Pacific power. In 1961, CIA-trained anti-Castro exiles landed in the Bay of Pigs, supported by US strikes on Cuban airfields. Grenada is a small Caribbean island 150 km north of Venezuela. 14 Successful insurrections took place during the period in Argentina: June 1943, February 1944, September 1955, and March 1962; Bolivia: May 1936, July 1937, December 1943, July 1946, May 1951, April 1952, and November 1964; Brazil: October 1945, August 1954, November 1955, and April 1964; Ecuador: August 1935, October 1937, May 1944, August 1947, November 1961, and July 1963; El Salvador: May 1944, October 1944, December 1948, October 1960, and January 1961; Guatemala: July 1944, October 1944, June 1954, and March 1963; Haiti: January 1946, May 1950, and December 1956; Panama: October 1941, November 1949, and May 1951; Paraguay: February 1936, August 1937, June 1948, January 1949, September 1949, May 1954; Venezuela: October 1945, November 1948, and January 1958. These interventions have profoundly shaped the character and history of the region. and 9 McAlister argues in favor of this “revisionist” approach, which regards military intervention as chiefly a response to functional imperatives rather than as an expression of willful selfishness, in “Changing Concepts of the Role of the Military in Latin America,” The Annals (07 1965), pp. The Trump administration’s threat of military intervention in Venezuela is only the latest chapter in Washington’s long history of coups in Latin America dating back to 1898. Believe it or not, this disparate grouping reflects the cultural and historical remnants of NY Court to Decide . 1898 * Spanish-American War / US intervention in Cuba US takes control of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. 294–298Google Scholar. pp. 158–159Google Scholar. Blum, William. Kelly Lytle Hernandez. Latin America -- History, Military -- Encyclopedias. With the current political crisis in Honduras, American (US) foreign policy is looking to soften its historic reputation in the region by largely deferring negotiations to Latin American diplomats. See how the U.S. influenced and imperialised in Central America. Some of the most notable U.S. interventions in Latin America: 1846: The United States invades Mexico and captures Mexico City in 1847. 3 Deutsch, Karl W., “Social Mobilization and Political Development,” this Review, 55 (09, 1961), 493–514Google Scholar; Russett, Bruce M.et al.World Handbook of Social and Political Indicators (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964), esp. The US-endorsed dictatorship committed grievous human rights violations while in power. The United Fruit Company (UFCO) was a highly successful American company that made major profits from bananas grown in Latin America and sold in the United States and Europe. Retrouvez Encyclopedia of U.S. Military Interventions in Latin America et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. The Banana Wars were occupations, police actions, and interventions on the part of the United States in Central America and the Caribbean between the end of the Spanish–American War in 1898 and the inception of the Good Neighbor Policy in 1934. ), Explosive Forces in Latin America (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1964), p. 77Google Scholar. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. When it comes to American intervention in Latin America, history tells us all options are always on the table. Updated October 13, 2019 One of the recurring themes in Latin American history is that of foreign intervention. , The Military and Society in Latin America (Stanford 1964); Lieuwen, Edwin, Arms and Politics in Latin America (New York 1961) and Generals vs. Presidents (New York 1964). and Lieuwen reconciles opposing tendencies by means of positing cycles in which a set of trends in one direction is succeeded by a countervailing set; see his Arms and Politics in Latin America, rev. The Trump’s administration leading role in recognizing Juan Guaido as the interim president of Venezuela returns the U.S. to a more assertive role in Latin America than it has had for years. Fill in your details below or click an … A priori, mutually contradictory theses about the relations of the military coup to social development can be constructed—and indeed the literature on the subject abounds in such contradictory theses, evidence to support each of which is always available. Accordingly, it becomes desirable to reexamine the “statics” of Latin American politics in the light of the “dynamics” of the processes of political development and social mobilization. CARACAS . Military officers directly seized power, removed or … Tweet; More; Related. View all Google Scholar citations Military officers directly seized power, removed or … Price New from Used from Hardcover "Please retry" $49.99 . For a detailed account of the creation of an interventionist frame of mind on the part of the military, see Chapter V of my Anatomy of a Coup d'Etat: Ecuador, 1963. Most of Latin America was plagued by military interference for the first 150 years of independence. 26–36; and Needler, M. C., “Peru Since the Coup d'Etat,” The World Today, 02, 1963Google Scholar. Castro’s communist government was well equipped with Soviet weapons, and defeated the invasion, which would lead to the notorious Cuban Missile Crisis stand-off the following year as the world came dangerously close to outright nuclear war. 1938 * Lazaro Cardenas nationalizes Mexican oil industry, including many US holdings. 26 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1959). The coup was supported and endorsed by the United States government, with US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger going to visit the newly-installed dictatorship several times. Spanish judge Baltazar Garzon would later rule that Kissinger was a witness to such crimes. At least as commonly, in the writer's experience, conditions improve as business confidence shows an upsurge after a coup, which normally occurs without appreciable economic dislocation and typically removes a government regarded as incompetent. Gringo Joe. ), The Role of the Military in Underdeveloped Countries (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. $561.55: $20.99: Hardcover $49.99 15 Used … (New York: Praeger, 1961)Google Scholar, esp. With the current political crisis in Honduras, American (US) foreign policy is looking to soften its historic reputation in the region by largely deferring negotiations to Latin American diplomats. Military Intervention in Africa. }. President Eisenhower would oversee plans to overthrow Castro with the same model used in Guatemala, eventually implemented by President Kennedy. $12.99 . 90–92Google Scholar. Before Panama sought independence from Greater Colombia, the Colombian government was negotiating with the US to build a canal between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 9 McAlister argues in favor of this “revisionist” approach, which regards military intervention as chiefly a response to functional imperatives rather than as an expression of willful selfishness, in “ Changing Concepts of the Role of the Military in Latin America… With Venezuela part of the U.S. military agenda, in collaboration with allies Colombia and Brazil, Bolsonaro has facilitated U.S. infiltration in the region and adopted the role of a country that has turned away from the regional unity which fuelled the quest for social change in Latin America. 21 See Whitaker, Arthur, Argentine Upheaval (New York: Praeger, 1956)Google Scholar; Lieuwen, , Generals vs. Presidents, pp. Sandino was later assassinated and followed by the US-backed Somoza dictatorship. This selective annotated bibliography focuses on key sources, with varying theoretical, empirical, and normative treatments of the military governments in the region, from the Cuban Revolution (1959) until the end of the Cold War (1989–1990). "isLogged": "0", In 1979, a revolution led by Maurice Bishop succeeded with Cuban support. On October 25, 1983, 10,000 US, Jamaican and Caribbean troops invaded the island, in a move that killed over 100 civilians and was condemned internationally by the UN General Assembly. Photo by Michael Nicholson/Corbis via Getty . Gringo Joe. "hasAccess": "0", During that time, nearly 250,000 Guatemalans were killed or ‘disappeared’. Achetez et téléchargez ebook Encyclopedia of U.S. Military Interventions in Latin America [2 volumes] (English Edition): Boutique Kindle - Relations : Amazon.fr In a black book operation during the Reagan administration in 1985, the US sold 1,500 missiles to Iran in exchange for seven American hostages. 4 Two exceptions to the general lack of attempts to relate static and dynamic factors in a systematic way are the very fine article by Gino Germani and Kalman H. Silvert entitled “Politics, Social Structure, and Military Intervention in Latin America,” European Journal of Sociology, 2 (1961), 62–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Schmitt, Karl M. and Burks, David, Evolution or Chaos: Dynamics of Latin American Government and Politics (New York: Praeger, 1963)Google Scholar. Published online by Cambridge University Press:  Whether through direct military action or CIA mischief, the United States has variously propped up brought down, or attempted to bring down, regimes in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Argentina, Haiti, Costa Rica, El Salvador, … A history of United States military intervention in Latin America from the Spanish-American War to the invasion of Panama, New York (Macmillan) 1990. Encyclopedia of U.S. Military Interventions in Latin America 2 volumes: Amazon.in: McPherson, Alan: Books Johnson gives an example from Brazil of public incitement of the military to revolt by civilians on p. 124 of his The Role of the Military in Developing Societies. Attack the System. President-elect Joe Biden is expected to return to long-held norms on multilateral policy in Latin America — including a shift in tone and more predictable foreign policy moves. "crossMark": true, Query parameters: { The United States was alarmed by the alleged spread of communism, and further by President Arbenz’s proposed ‘Decree 900’, which would allow the redistribution of undeveloped lands held by large property owners to landless farmers, making up 90 percent of the population. Migra! Crimes included mass execution, extrajudicial arrest, torture and rape, as well as the relocation of children born of pregnant detainees (before imprisonment, after continuous rape). Political Development and Military Intervention in... Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. In 1959, Fidel Castro overthrew the US-backed military Batista government in power, causing alarm in the US over his explicit communist agenda and links to the Soviet Union. Allende’s Chile and the Inter-American Cold War. "lang": "en" Once the country gained independence, French businessman Phillip Burnau-Varilla sold his rights to building the Panama Canal to the US government. President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the “Good Neighbour Policy” in 1933, ending the military interventions in Latin America in favour of building friendly relations instead. Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventionism Since World War II.Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995. 25 I have discussed it in “United States Recognition Policy and the Peruvian Case,” Inter-American Economic Affairs (Spring, 1963)Google Scholar. Interventions in Latin America 1846 The U.S., fulfilling the doctrine of Manifest Destiny, goes to war with Mexico and ends up with a third of Mexico's territory. In light of the current political crisis in Venezuela, a United States-supported opposition figure has announced a disputed presidency. Follow us on Instagram. In 1964, President John F. Kennedy backed a coup d’etat against Brazilian President Joao Goulart, “to prevent Brazil from becoming another Cuba”. 1936-79 * US supports three different Somozas as dictators of Nicaragua. Intervention used to further US objectives can be military actions, economic trade or coercive diplomacy, such as when the US threatens to suspend economic assistance to its poorer allies. This is Johnson's own approach: see his The Military and Society in Latin America (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1964)Google Scholar, Introduction and Chapter IX; and also that of Horowitz, Irving, “United States Policy and the Latin American Military Establishment,” The Correspondent, Autumn 1964Google Scholar. Encyclopedia of U.S. Military Interventions in Latin America [2 volumes] [McPherson, Professor of International and Area Studies Conocophillips Petroleum Chair in Latin American Studies and Director of the Center for the Americas Alan] on Amazon.com. Feature Flags: { Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal 69–85; and Peterson, Phyllis, “Brazil: Institutionalized Confusion,” in Needler, Martin C. General Augusto Sandino led a rebellion against the conservative government and US occupation. Intervention (International law) Military relations. 11 For one such case of which the author has personal knowledge, see Anatomy of a Coup d'Etat: Ecuador, 1963, p. 19. He went on to help Colombian drug trafficker Pablo Escobar smuggle cocaine, as well as helping the US smuggle weapons to Nicaraguan Contra death squads in what would later come to be known as the Iran-Contra affair. United States intervention in the Caribbean, 1898–1934, überarbeitete Auflage, Chicago, IL (Dorsey Press) 1988. In 1944, the right-wing dictator Ubico was removed following the Guatemalan Revolution, as the country saw its first democratic election in history. Therefore, US military interventions were justified as actions for preventing conununism and for promoting democracy. Buy Encyclopedia of U.S. Military Interventions in Latin America [2 volumes] by McPherson, Alan online on Amazon.ae at best prices. 3 Certain of these variables are, to be sure, not entirely constant throughout the area, but they are so nearly so as to warrant ignoring their effects. and Londregan, John B. Encyclopedia of U.S. Military Interventions in Latin America [2 volumes] [McPherson, Professor of International and Area Studies Conocophillips Petroleum Chair in Latin American Studies and Director of the Center for the Americas Alan] on Amazon.com. Noté /5. 2014. After the democratic election of President Salvador Allende, who had ties to the Cuban Castro government, in 1970, US President Richard Nixon ordered an economic war against Chile. Much of the $30 million paid by Iran for the weapons went to fund the Contras. In the 1970s, the CIA would go on to recruit General Manuel Noriega, who had previously run the country’s secret police until his president’s sudden death in a plane crash. Pinochet banned political parties, dissolved congress and scrapped the constitution. In 1976, Argentina’s democratically elected President Isabel Peron was overthrown in a military coup d’etat that lead to the deaths of nearly 30,000. Attack the System. (ed. According to O’ Donnell this new type of bureaucratic authoritarian military regime left many political scientists puzzled because of its quick ability to take over these countries. Under Guatemalan dictator Jorge Ubico, the UFCO controlled 42 percent of Guatemala’s land and was exempt from tax and import duties. 1934 * US abrogates the Platt Amendment of 1901. One of his projects was the construction of a large airstrip, which US President Reagan claimed was designed for Soviet aircraft. President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the “Good Neighbour Policy” in 1933, ending the military interventions in Latin America in favour of building friendly relations instead. $24.59 . Despite it's championing of freedom, the CIA's true objective has always been imperialist in nature. If one thought solely in terms of these factors, as some authors do, regarding military political activity exclusively as being “pushed” by pressures internal to the military, rather than being also “pulled” by the demands of the total political situation, then it would be logical to expect these changes to result in greater professionalism and technicism, reducing military involvement in politics, and in greater sympathy with the lower classes, rendering such involvement more progressive in orientation. Are now active worldwide, particularly counter-drug programs freedoms to all, allowing communists to enter.. Subsume them in some general formulation Reagan claimed was designed for Soviet aircraft have played a Role! 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Published online by Cambridge University Press: 01 August 2014 editions Hide other formats and editions Hide formats! See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions some general formulation worldwide, particularly counter-drug programs the one! Of the security Assistance programs that are now active worldwide, particularly counter-drug programs not to. To manage your cookie settings, they do not appear substantiated by the Somoza... Plagued by military interference for the weapons went to fund the Contras to cookies! Guatemala was ruled by a CIA-instigated coup against Allende in 1973 by general Augusto Pinochet have appropriately invoked powers... Controlled 42 percent of Guatemala ’ s cabinet be as diverse as he?... Retrouvez Encyclopedia of U.S. military interventions in Latin America, history tells all! Has been a breeding ground for many of the Americas were thus considered an act of aggression Somalia, and... 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