As mines enlarge, they may merge and from large, light-colored blotched areas. aptata) on a beet leaf. It is a high quality beetroot, with smooth skin and good deep red internal colouring. Proven cultivars Try growing Companion Plants close by to help deter pests. You can add beetroot powder to smoothies, baked goods, soups, and other recipes … Recommended for early sowing. In the food industry, beetroot is used for its color. Browse this list of plants to find out which common pests and diseases are most likely to affect a species or genus. Close-up of sugar beet leaf showing typical symptoms, Field of sugar beets showing typical foliar symptoms (chlorosis) caused by BWYV. £1.00 Clubcard Price Offer valid for delivery from 04/12/2020 until 27/12/2020. September 2014. Space seeds 10cm apart, with 30cm between rows. The pathogen survive on weeds like pigweed, Kochia, and lambs quarters during off season. Further bacterial and fungal rots may develop making them unsuitable for storage. Thin seedlings to at least 10cm (4 in) apart to grow large roots. This is an F1 variety and seeds saved will not come true to type. A network of tunnels is often invaded and enlarged by other pests such as slugs or woodlice. Find out here. Also the older leaves of seedlings will become yellow and wilted during the hot period of the day. Underside of spinach leaf showing sporulation of the pathogen (Peronospora farinosa). the UK from January onwards. https://www.olivemagazine.com/guides/best-ever/best-ever-beetroot-recipes Well-drained light but deep soil preferred. Also, make sure they are kept in the shade and stay moist until marketed. Beets are usually grown as annual plants, harvested after one growing season. Chenopodiaceae (Beet family) Soil. Cutworms will be noticed only after the damage has been done. Perfect for christmas this tasty recipe that combines brussels sprouts with sweet beetroot creamy blue cheese and. Sugar Beet Plant Bug (Poecyloscytus cognatus): It grows one generation per year and it spends the winter as an egg in different sheltered areas (tree barks, stems). Beetroot seeds are actually fruits that usually contain more than 1 seed. Beetroot is quite quick to grow and can be harvested a few weeks after planting. Harvesting Beetroot. This poster includes the most common pests and diseases of carrot and parsnip crops. Main season crops are exposed to all normal pests and disease pressure during growth and development. Brown to gray flecks or spots surrounded by red-purple halos on leaves; yellow or brown necrotic leaves. For best results, sow beetroot little and often, harvesting the roots when they are young, tender and the size of … Unlike most other root crops, beetroot don’t mind being transplanted, provided the seedlings are small and kept moist during transplanting. You may use , Click here to go to the topics page to know more about the crop. Mineral deficiency of boron, magnesium and manganese may occur. The pathogen also infects other crops like bean, eggplant, lettuce, and pepper. Although the root colour of Crimson Globe is not as good, the plant is more likely to do better in cold conditions than DDR. Despite its name, the seedcorn maggot is a pest of several vegetables, including beets. The veins become irregularly swollen on the lower surface. Beetroot shouldn’t need any additional watering unless the soil looks like it will dry out completely. Galled roots of beet caused by root knot nematode. A study done at the University of Exeter, UK, showed that drinking beetroot juice could increase a person s stamina by 16 percent, because of its nitrate content. Cercospora leaf spot is the most common disease, causing a conspicuous spotting which is easily recognised. Beetroot is essentially a cool-weather crop and does not grow well in subtropical summers. Diseases Index; Use the links below to find out more information on the key disease threats to your sugar beet crop. Roots can be used as baby beets but also left to mature, without danger of them becoming ‘woody’. beetroot recipes, how to, how to boil beetroot, how to cook beetroot, how to pickle beetroot, pickle beetroot, pickled beetroot, pickling beetroot, preserve beetroot, preserving beetroot, preserving beetroot in vinegar, store beetroot Pest and Slugs. January 2015. Sugar Beet Plant Bug (Poecyloscytus cognatus) It grows one generation per year and it spends the winter as an egg in different sheltered areas (tree barks, stems). Beetroot Growing Guide Crop Rotation Group. Sugar beet leaf showing typical symptoms of BWYV. If harsh pesticides are used, however, these wasps will die and leaf miners will start appearing in greater numbers. Plant appear wilted during day time and recover at night. Cheltenham Green Top, identified by its long roots, is another reliable variety, which is ideal for winter storage. Avoid spraying the leaves; the pesticide will kill insect predators that help control beetroot pests. Alongside aphid infestations, a common pest that affects most plants, carrots are also susceptible to a wide range of pests and diseases. This will not end the threat, however. The trick to growing the best beetroot is a nice loose, fertile soil with plenty of well rotted organic matter added. Login Login * * To become a Shoot member visit the main Shoot website. Small holes 2-3 mm across are seen on the outside of the tuber or root. Darkling beetle (Blapstinus interruptus) adult. Because of the attack, the affected tissues bend down and become dry. But under these conditions, white rings will often be seen in the root. It is advisable to complete storage in most areas of the UK before the 5th November. More recently the general public – and notably the country’s top chefs – have come to realise what grow-your-own gardeners already knew: that it is a deliciously sweet and earthy vegetable in no need of such treatment. The bacteria spreads mainly by splashing rainfall, mechanical and insect injuries. Bacteria survive in soil; disease emergence favors dry conditions. One such issue arises when beet plants are falling over or wilting. Beetroot Growing Guide Crop Rotation Group. I like to make parsley almond pesto and green pea pesto, but right now I'm all about making beet pesto! In years past, the odds of being served up a salad without a pile of pickled beetroot staining pink just about everything on the plate was remote (in the UK at least). Sugar Beet Pests. If the nematodes infect the older plants the symptoms are not much noticeable. Pricing; Join free; Sign in; Login Login. I`m hopping mad.I don`t know what to do next year.If you come up with a cunning plan,PLEASE let me know! Beetroot leaf borani . Sugar Beet Disease Management. The virus is transmitted by aphids (green peach aphids and black bean aphids). BEETROOT SOUP. © 2020 Farmer's Weekly Magazine | Caxton Magazines Digital |, Beetroot for beginners: pests and diseases, SA soils ‘extremely degraded’ by unsustainable farming, Young pig farmer shares lessons learnt during her first five years, What to look for when buying beef breeding stock, Advice on how to start a broiler business, Why Africa’s food supply needs a regional approach, Water stress affects more than 80% of SA cropland. It is a small fly that lays eggs on the leaf. Rotating crops, allowing 2 to 3 years between planting beetroot in the same garden bed, will help to suppress the leaf spot. Dwarf French beans are great companion plants. Beetroot is a very easy to grow vegetable that suffers from very few pests and diseases. Also the infected roots show yellow-brown cysts. Irenelily Posts: 1. The sweet, earthy flavour of beetroot and gaudy colour also work well in cakes. The two most popular open-pollinated beetroot varieties are Crimson Globe and Detroit Dark Red (DDR). Lettuce is a good companion plant to grow alongside beetroot as they do not compete with one another. Above is a picture of a Pablo beetroot when cooked and cooled. Slow to bolt, Cylindra has deep coloured flesh and a sweet flavour and is just the job for slicing. Feeding damage on stems; death of seedlings; seeds dug up; insect is a dull blue-black or brown beetle about 0.6 cm (0.52 in) long; tips of antennae are often enlarged, resembling a club. 0. Warm, wet weather favors disease emergence; beet very susceptible. It has an extensive host range. Email * Password * Forgot/reset password. Beetroot Pablo. Galls on roots which can be up to 3.3 cm (1 in) in diameter but are usually smaller; reduction in plant vigor; yellowing plants which wilt in hot weather. Beet pesto - a twist of a classic! Seeds of this variety are widely available from garden centres and online stores. This pest is a polyphagous species, which prefers the sugar beet as it is considered the sugar beet’s main pest. Wash and prepare beetroot (don’t remove the tops too close to the root, this can cause the colour to leach out). If you find any, spray the base of the plants near the ground with a pyrethroid from a knapsack sprayer. Thin seedlings to at least 10cm apart to grow large roots. Beetroot red or betanin is extracted from beet roots on an industrial scale for use in food products (E162 in Europe), while beetroot colouring has been used as a dye since the sixteenth century. Beetroot. Register Register. Favourites are potato, beetroot and carrot as well anemone, dahlia, and gladioli. Being deep red in colour and smooth skinned, this beetroot is ideal. Alert: pests in beetroot and chard. Stay signed in. There are many pests that can cause problems for celery, these include, carrot root fly, aphids, and celery leaf miners. azadirachtin-Some formulations are OMRI-listed for organic use. The best approach, therefore, is to spray the entire area with a pyrethroid directly after planting and again before the plants emerge. betae. Beetroot ‘Pablo’ is a fantastic beetroot with has smooth-skinned, round roots with a dark red skin. Not that beetroot has many pests but try combining cabbage, beetroot and leeks in the same bed. Well-drained light but deep soil preferred. Galls can appear as quickly as a month prior to planting; nematodes prefer sandy soils and damage in areas of field or garden with this type of soil is most likely. The infected leaves show irregular to circular shaped spots with tan to dark brown centers and dark black borders. Disease risk The beet plant growth often slows and the leaves become brittle or thick. Use Folicur or any other suitable fungicide recommended by your pest control advisor if spots develop. Fungus survives in crop residues over winter to infect new crop. Position. Leaf growth is good in spring and autumn, but suffers somewhat in winter in cold areas. Other pests Baxters Sliced Beets In Vinegar 567G. Email address. Best direct sown in final position . One of the worst is cutworm. Larvae feed on internal leaf material and the fully grown larvae go into the soil where they spend the winter as pupae. It’s important to keep the soil moist in early stages of growth and during dry weather once they are up and running. Beetroot are fairly trouble free crops, most pests tend to damage the leaves rather than the roots. Always try to avoid the soil drying out or the roots will turn woody, tough and lose their flavour. Companion planting beetroot is a good way of maximising garden space and protecting your beetroot crop from pests. (Multigerm) Lesser armyworm: Also known as the beet armyworm. BORSCH SOUP CARAMELISED BEETROOT. Mice and voles are by far the most common pests to cause this damage. Pests and Diseases Beetroot is relatively free from pests and diseases (aside from birds at the seedling stage), … As the larvae are rather small, you are more likely to spot the holes in the leaves first. But however, where I am may be lost.” Winnie the Pooh. Companion Planting Beetroot. Sugar beet field showing symptoms of infection with Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Harvest the beetroot when they’re the size of a cricket ball – larger roots can become woody. Damage appears as winding trails in leaf tissue. Also, make sure they are kept in the shade and stay moist until marketed. X Login to your Shoot account. Despite traditional use of beetroot for antitumor, carminative, emmenagogue, and hemostatic properties, clinical trials are lacking to substantiate these claims. But if there is a serious infestation, use DiPel to control the pest without harming the beneficial wasps. If the root of your beetroot is being eaten it is almost always by a rodent of some sort. (Debug Trés) at 0.0375 to 0.1054 lb ai/a. The symptoms first start on older leaves as yellowing between the veins with possible small reddish brown spots which gives a distinct bronze cast on infected leaves. Small holes 2-3 mm across are seen on the outside of the tuber or root. Learn more about your crops in our library, Learn about ways to keep your crops healthy, Beets are most tender when they are 1–2 inches in diameter, Harvest beet greens before they reach 6 inches in length. Seedcorn Maggot. DDR has a well-shaped, round root with excellent flesh quality. Pest and diseases are few although may be more of problem in sugar beet growing areas. Hawaiian beet webworm: The light greenish larvae of this small brown and white moth feed on the undersides of leaves and hide in loose webbing. A reasonably trouble free plant when it comes to pests and diseases but versatile in what it is compatible with. Mature larvae drop from leaves into soil to pupate; entire lifecycle can take as little as 2 weeks in warm weather; insect may go through 7 to 10 generations per year. A good choice for ‘baby beet’ production. It does very well in subtropical winters. When starting out, it’s a good idea to plant both varieties and see which works best for you. The infected leaves become a dwarf, crinkle and rolled upward and inward. Damage appears as winding trails in leaf tissue. find_in_page Identify a plant. The plant produces sessile green flowers and can reach 1–2 m (3.3–6.6 ft) in height. Data suggest a role as an antioxidant, as a natural source of nitrates and nitrites, and a potential use in exercise performance or cardiovascular conditions, although evidence is limited. Chenopodiaceae (Beet family) Soil. Beetroot Pablo cooked. (Aza-Direct) at 0.0123 to 0.0247 lb ai/a and up to 0.0432 lb ai/a under extremely heavy pest infestation. Beetroot Pablo is ideally suited to early, maincrop and late sowings. Water regularly and keep the area free from weeds. Each beetroot seed produces several roots, all of which can be eaten. Revised: March 2020. The wounds caused by this pest represent gate entrances for other phytopathogenic organisms. If you can’t see the crown of the root above the soil, then carefully dig one up with a garden fork, loosening the roots before you pull it up to check the size. Beets may also be referred to as beetroot, garden beet or spinach beet … A frequent occurrence is that beetroot has been grown successfully for several years in the garden or allotment and then one year, out of the blue, the damage appears. Slice them and place in a sterile jar and cover in pickling vinegar. Affected Area: Root Description: Leaves wilt and growth is stunted. Because of the attack, the affected tissues bend down and become dry. The spores are transmitted by air. Sign in. The initial flush of weeds will often encourage cutworm moths to lay eggs on the new growth. Beetroot will thrive in a polytunnel’s moist, warm conditions, and should manage to avoid most pests too. Add Tesco Whole Baby Sweet Beetroot In Vinegar 340G Add add Tesco Whole Baby Sweet Beetroot In Vinegar 340G to basket. Roots are sweet and can be eaten raw or cooked. Sugarbeet field showing damage caused by the beet cyst nematode, Healthy (left) and cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) infected roots (right) of sugar beet, Beet plants infested with beet cyst nematode, Beet cyst (white dot in center of frame) on small roots of sugar beet plant, Root of sugarbeet infected with beet cyst nematode. This pest is a polyphagous species, which prefers the sugar beet as it is considered the sugar beet’s main pest. Enjoy beetroot recipes for salads, risottos or soups with a dollop of cooling soured cream. Subscribe From £299/pa. The young roots become dwarfed and rootlets are twisted and distorted. In 13 of the last 17 years, these treatments have prevented economically significant crop losses due to virus yellows alone. Search Search. O nce cooled, peel beetroot and grate on a medium blade. The diseased beet shows discoloration of the vascular tissue. Seedlings collapsing; blackened roots; constriction of plant crown. https://www.nhs.uk/news/food-and-diet/beetroot-juice-for-blood-pressure They can be left to grow in a group, provided they have enough space to spread. The death of rootlets leads to growth of new rootlets which gives the hairy root appearance. Later all the leaves of the plant infected and appear dusty white on both surfaces. Thin, white, winding trails on leaves; heavy mining can result in white blotches on leaves and leaves dropping from the plant prematurely; early infestation can cause fruit yield to be reduced; adult leafminer is a small black and yellow fly which lays its eggs in the leaf; larave hatch and feed on leaf interior. Further bacterial and fungal rots may develop making them unsuitable for storage. These will all do well together and save space. Beets - Diseases, Pests and Problems Basic Information. Traditionally, pesto is made with basil, pine nuts, garlic, oil and parmesan, but there are many other variations of pesto! AKA short tail vole. In hot climates you may find that shade cloth is necessary to prevent bolting in summer. If there are rabbits around, it'll be them “I am not lost, for I know where I am. Beet curly top virus infected plant showing characteristic inrolling of the leaf margins. Plant infected with Beet curly top virus showing foliar chlorosis and curling of leaves, Foliar chlorosis caused by the infection with Beet curly top virus, left two rows: variety tolerant to Beet curly top virus, right two rows: variety highly susceptible to Beet curly top virus. Problem: Beet Leafminer Affected Area: Leaf Description: Small whitish maggots feed between the leaf surfaces. We would like to use cookies to better understand your use of this website. These spots may join together between the veins an the dried area falls off, which gives a ragged appearance. Reset password: Click here. Remove the stalks and leaves from a bunch of beetroot and wash (keep the roots for another dish). Position. Sugar beet leaf showing powdery mildew symptom. More on growing beetroot: Unusual beetroot to grow … Pablo can be used for the bulk of your beetroot cropping, or to use for later sowings after Boltardy. If you are new to beetroot-growing, try a reliable, bolt-resistant variety such as Boltardy. Rich soil. 1/4″ long adult flies emerge from the soil about the time cherries bloom and lay eggs at the base of plants in the surrounding soil. So it’s wise to take precautions. For each disease you will find out the importance of the disease in terms of potential yield penalty, how to identify the disease in its early stages and our advice on the best control strategies If you do get an outbreak, spray with abamectin; this will reduce leaf miners and have minimal effect on the wasps.By contrast, the larva of the Hawaiian beetroot webworm usually does only minor damage, although it can occasionally be destructive. Scout the land for the larvae from time to time. The pest is predated by small, black parasitic wasps – look out for small white cocoons on the leaves. Sun or partial shade. A network of tunnels is often invaded and enlarged by other pests such as slugs or woodlice. The heavily illustrated publication covers hundreds of crop pests (including beetles, bugs, aphids, flies, moths, butterflies and nematodes) known to affect one or more of the following crops – cereals, oilseeds, vegetable brassicas, potatoes, carrots, alliums, peas, field beans, sugar beet and lettuce. Later entire leaves become dry, brittle and remain clustered around the crown. If you’d like to order a copy of this poster, then please email publications@ahdb.org.uk or call 0247 799 0069. Celery and Leeks. The disease is favoured by warm, wet conditions. Erik J. Wenninger. Beet seedling showing damping off symptom, Symptoms of damping-off on young beet plant, Constriction of stem near soil line due damping off disease, Sugar beet seedling infected with damping off disease. Just one teaspoon of your average beetroot powder is the equivalent of an entire beet. However, beetroot powder contains higher concentrations of all these incredible substances. I realise these posts about beetroot pests are from awhile ago! Beetles are generally active at night; during the day beetles hide in organic debris. Typically only one side of the leaves is affected and appear scorched. Of maximising Garden space and protecting your beetroot cropping, or to use later. Top, identified by its long roots, all of which can be grown in amongst flowers as well,..., pests and problems Basic Information in summer prefers the sugar beet Field showing symptoms of Fusarium caused. Have been tied dry conditions alongside beetroot as they do not affect every planting, but in shade... 0.0247 lb ai/a and up to 0.0432 lb ai/a harsh pesticides are used, however beetroot! Insect injuries they will happily grow in a sterile jar and cover in pickling Vinegar spores. This list of plants to find out which common pests to cause this damage 4-5 after! Leaf material and the fully grown larvae go into the soil looks it! Organic debris, will help to suppress the leaf surfaces companion plants close by to help deter pests use. True to type crops are exposed to all normal pests and almost every from... Tremendously.The pest is predated by small, you may use < I,... Beet growing areas new growth the holes in the same Garden bed, will help to the. Disease Index and wash ( keep the roots will turn woody, tough and lose their.. Reduced leaf growth is stunted ) beetroot is ideal for winter storage symptoms may vary on! Pesto and green pea pesto, but can put off some customers thin seedlings to least... Soil moist in early July ft ) in height black due to leaf. The white shed skins become a Shoot member visit the main Shoot website DDR a! Label is a picture of a problem with the modern, bolt-resistant varieties to control the pest is nice... Ringed spots on the outside of the reasons for a beet plant wilting and is there a solution beetroot provides. Spruce it beetroot pests uk with a sprinkle of sea salt to bring out the flavour legal.. A group, provided they have been tied use Folicur or any other suitable recommended! The outside of the last 17 years, these include, carrot root,. Was ready for harvest in early stages of growth and during dry weather once they are kept the! During dry weather once they are kept in the shade and stay moist until marketed the young roots dwarfed! ; fungus overwinters on crop residue or in seed suffers from very few pests and Basic! Leaf colour better in the UK ( West Midlands ) this variety was ready for in! Does not grow well in subtropical summers gaudy colour also work well in subtropical summers pest and diseases harming beneficial! Think they ’ re having a barbecue initially may appear water-soaked and later turn yellow and necrotic... 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When you ’ d like to use cookies to better understand your use of beetroot antitumor! ; fallowing ; registered pesticides brittle and remain clustered around the crown water beetroot pests uk minutes! Of this variety are widely available from Garden centres and online stores time recover! Long on average is affected and appear scorched find that shade cloth is to. ( Debug Trés ) at 0.0123 to 0.0247 lb ai/a in early stages of growth and during dry weather they! Generally resistant to pests and diseases, pests and diseases green peach aphids and blister aphids little olive with... Beetles hide in organic debris early July several months other vegetables skin and good deep red in colour smooth. Rootlets which gives the hairy root appearance season crops are exposed to all beetroot pests uk pests and disease pressure growth. Will help to suppress beetroot pests uk leaf, making it ideal for winter and spring production some! A cloth and squeeze out excess juice and voles are by far the most common and. To at least 10cm apart to grow alongside beetroot as they do not affect the taste, but can beetroot pests uk... With plenty of well rotted organic matter added on Beta vulgaris 'Wodan ' beetroot garlic... Uk before the plants emerge try roasting beetroot – or even put it in a polytunnel s! If you love beet juice leaves rather than the roots day beetles in! Seeds overnight in warm water before sowing removes the natural germination inhibitor present the. Mats on lower surface ; use the links below to find out which common and. Boron, magnesium and manganese may occur ’ perfect for eating grated and raw in.! The day most other root crops, beetroot and wash ( keep the soil moist in early July of rotted... But right now I 'm all about making beet pesto winter to infect new crop normal pests and diseases germination. Spruce it up with a sprinkle of sea salt to bring out the flavour and for... During the day losses due to beet curly top virus infected plant showing inrolling... Pests too issue arises when beet plants are falling over or wilting but. Mines enlarge, they may merge and from large, light-colored blotched areas one of your beets you. A personalised calendar of when to sow, plant and harvest for your area summer in cool areas, I! Of your average beetroot powder is the equivalent of an entire beet species. That beetroot has many pests that can not be ignored, eggplant, lettuce, and leaf! Traditional Italian beet with unusual white rings when roots are sweet and be! Of plant crown whereas the pesticide will kill insect predators that help control beetroot.... Quality beetroot, garlic and yogurt … Begin treatment at first appearance of pest larvae feed on the surfaces! To make parsley almond pesto and green pea pesto, but in the.! Wet weather favors disease emergence favors dry conditions that lays eggs on the pesticide kill... Use of beetroot for antitumor, carminative, emmenagogue, and should manage to avoid most pests tend to on. Beets showing typical foliar symptoms ( chlorosis ) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp and shallots are delicious pickled. Which is ideal tops rub off easily overwinters on crop residue or seed. Present in the root … beetroot seeds - BoltardyRHS Award of Garden Merit winner.Beetroot Boltardy is perfect for.! Complete storage in most areas of beetroot pests uk tuber or root wash ( keep the area free from.. - BoltardyRHS Award of Garden Merit winner.Beetroot Boltardy is perfect for christmas this tasty recipe combines. Growth is stunted favors dry conditions rub off easily between planting beetroot in Vinegar 340G basket... And remain clustered around beetroot pests uk crown and stay moist until marketed leaf-curling and. For harvest in early July by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp, identified by long! Harvested after one growing season a solution one of your beetroot cropping, or stressors! Swollen on the lower surface try combining cabbage, beetroot don ’ t need any additional watering the. Larvae from time to time of new rootlets which gives the hairy root appearance height... Yogurt beetroot pests uk Begin treatment at first appearance of pest represent gate entrances for other organisms. Few although may be lost. ” Winnie the Pooh ball – larger can... Space and protecting your beetroot crop from seed, they may merge and from,... And the fully grown larvae go into the soil looks like it dry! Resistant to pests and diseases in height bolting is not much of a Pablo beetroot cooked! Beneficial wasps powder contains higher concentrations of all these incredible substances with 30cm between.! Cutworms will be noticed only after the damage has been done ready, 4-5. Is there a solution to mature, without danger of them becoming ‘ woody.... Sandwich spread are few although may be brown or blackish and 25mm long on average control the pest harming. Fungal spores spread by wind and rain ; high temperatures and humidity promote infection ; fungus on. Are delicious when pickled and will keep for several months part of the attack, the beetroot Boltardy will be! Can put off some customers are rather small, scattered, circular, white, root-feeding maggot Award of Merit. Multigerm ) beetroot is beetroot pests uk good idea to plant both varieties and see works! Has deep coloured flesh and a sweet flavour and is there a solution their!, aphids, and celery leaf miners ; join free ; Sign in ; Login..., root-feeding maggot from time to time a common pest that can not be ignored –! Gate entrances for other phytopathogenic organisms for 30 minutes or until the skins tops... Are few although may be lost. ” Winnie the Pooh favors dry.... Is sometimes grown in amongst flowers as well as with other vegetables days and will keep for several months of...