Mangroves as Coastal Protection workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, 19-22 January 2012, or the Natural Coastal Protection workshop help in Cambridge, UK, 27-29 March 2012. Mangrove forests form a unique wetland ecosystem, inhabiting the edge of land and sea, thriving in seawater. OTHER THREATS are illegal dumping, beach renourishment, oil spill, agricultural run-off that contains herbicides, pesticides, and sugar cane wastes. The rate of mangrove loss is likely to increase with rising sea levels and urban sprawl. Man-made canal systems have altered fresh water run-off in the Florida Everglades, dramatically changing salinity levels and lowering the water table.  Threats to Mangroves  Healthy, protected mangrove forest, Lamu, Kenya. More than 35% of the world’s mangroves are already gone. The threats include: The ecological balance of food chains and mangrove fish communities can also be altered. Another modern-day threat to the health of mangrove forests is pollution from man-made litter, which enters mangroves with ocean currents, wind, plastics are the most common - and the most threatening - due to its presistence in the environment. Mangrove Forests: Threats Mangrove forests are one of the world’s most threatened tropical ecosystems. Mangroves – trees and shrubs which live in intertidal zones – are found along tropical and sub-tropical coastlines in many Commonwealth countries. Although natural disasters are big threats, man-made pollution is the biggest threat to mangroves. Mangroves lack the majesty of their terrestrial counterparts; they are dark and can smell bad. The UNEP study shows that up to 13 per cent of the Pacific region’s mangroves could disappear as sea levels rise because the forests’ natural response — to retreat further inland — is blocked by natural features and man-made obstructions, such as sea walls and settlements. The rate of disappearing mangroves in this century is up to 50% in countries such as India, Philippines, and Vietnam, while in the Americas they are being cleared at a rate faster than tropical rainforests. Threats to mangrove forests and their habitats include: ... Pollution: Fertilizers, pesticides, and other toxic man-made chemicals carried by river systems from sources upstream can kill animals living in mangrove forests, while oil pollution can smother mangrove roots and suffocate the trees. In many parts of the world, mangroves are cut down to make room for fish ponds. Not only are the forests lost when a coast is developed, but a man-made structure almost always replaces them. Mangroves face dire threats with or without sea-level rise. to some extent.  Mangrove forests provide sheltered areas needed by juvenile fish and other marine organisms as well as other wildlife and enhance biodiversity in neighboring habitats, such as coral reefs. Over the past thirty years or so, Sri Lanka’s coastal zone has witnessed a rapid conversion of it’s mangroves for various uses such as aquaculture and housing development. Credits This publication was made in the framework of the project Mangrove Capital: `Capturing Mangrove Values in Land Use Planning and Production Systems´, This book focuses on the worldwide threats to mangrove forests and the management solutions currently being used to counteract those hazards. Designed for the professional or specialist in marine science, coastal zone management, biology, and related disciplines, this work will appeal to those not only working to protect mangrove forests, but also the surrounding coastal areas of all types. Coastal development may be the primary threat to mangroves. Community radio programmes aimed at coastal communities may also benefit. When mad-made destruction of mangroves is evident, all of the above strategies are very good. 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